what to feed chickens
Written by: 
Kia Elliot

The Essential Guide: What to Feed Chickens for Optimal Health and Egg Production

Are you looking to ensure the optimal health and egg production of your chickens? Look no further! In this essential guide, we will explore the ins and outs of what to feed chickens to keep them in peak condition and maximize their egg-laying potential.

Whether you are a seasoned chicken owner or just starting out, this comprehensive article will provide you with all the information you need.

Creating a balanced and nutritious diet for your chickens is key to their overall well-being, and it directly affects the quality and quantity of eggs they produce. From understanding the different nutritional needs of chickens at different stages of life to knowing what foods to avoid, we will cover it all.

We will also delve into important considerations such as providing access to fresh water and the benefits of free-ranging.

Get ready to become a well-informed chicken owner as we dive into the world of chicken nutrition!

Understanding the nutritional needs of chickens

To feed your chickens for optimal health and egg production, it is crucial to understand their nutritional needs.

Chickens require a well-balanced diet that includes proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. These nutrients play a vital role in their growth, egg production, and overall health.

Proteins: Protein is essential for muscle development, feather growth, and egg production. Chickens need a high-quality source of protein in their diet. Commercial chicken feeds often contain a mix of plant and animal-based proteins, such as soybean meal, fish meal, and meat and bone meal.

Carbohydrates: Carbohydrates provide energy to chickens. Corn, barley, wheat, and other grains are common sources of carbohydrates in chicken feed. They should make up a significant portion of the diet, but it's essential to provide a balanced mix of grains to avoid nutritional imbalances.

Fats: Fats are a concentrated source of energy and aid in the absorption of fat-soluble vitamins. Including some fats in the diet can be beneficial, but it's crucial not to overdo it. Too much fat can lead to obesity and other health issues.

Vitamins and Minerals: Chickens require a wide range of vitamins and minerals for optimal health. These include vitamins A, D, E, K, B-complex vitamins, calcium, phosphorus, and trace minerals such as zinc, selenium, and manganese.

Commercial feeds are typically fortified with these essential nutrients, but it's important to ensure they are present in the right amounts.

Essential nutrients for chickens

Chickens require specific nutrients to maintain good health and produce high-quality eggs. Let's take a closer look at some of the essential nutrients for chickens and their functions:

Calcium: Calcium is crucial for the development of strong eggshells. Lack of calcium can lead to thin and weak shells or even shell-less eggs. Provide a calcium source such as crushed oyster shells or ground limestone to ensure your chickens get enough calcium.

Omega-3 Fatty Acids: Omega-3 fatty acids are known for their health benefits, and they can also enhance the nutritional value of eggs. Including flaxseed or fish oil in the diet can boost the omega-3 content of eggs.

Vitamin D: Vitamin D is important for calcium absorption and bone health. Chickens can produce vitamin D when exposed to sunlight, so allowing them access to natural sunlight or using artificial lighting can help meet their vitamin D needs.

Iron: Iron is essential for blood production and overall health. Including iron-rich foods such as leafy greens, red meat scraps, or iron supplements can prevent anemia in chickens.

Vitamin E: Vitamin E is an antioxidant that plays a crucial role in the immune system. Including foods rich in vitamin E, such as wheat germ or sunflower seeds, can benefit your chickens' overall health.

Probiotics: Probiotics are beneficial bacteria that support a healthy gut. Adding probiotics to your chickens' diet can improve digestion and boost their immune system.

Types of chicken feed available in the market

When it comes to feeding chickens, there are several options available in the market. Understanding the different types of chicken feed can help you make an informed decision based on your chickens' specific needs and your budget.

  • Starter Feed: Starter feed is formulated for newly hatched chicks and provides the essential nutrients they need during their early growth stages. It usually contains higher protein levels to support rapid development.
  • Grower Feed: Grower feed is designed for young chickens that have outgrown the starter feed but are not yet ready for layer feed. It provides the necessary nutrients for healthy growth and development.
  • Layer Feed: Layer feed is specifically formulated for laying hens and contains the right balance of nutrients to support egg production. It usually has higher calcium levels to ensure the production of strong eggshells.
  • All-in-One Feed: All-in-one feed is a convenient option that combines starter, grower, and layer feed into a single product. It simplifies feeding and eliminates the need to switch feeds as the chickens age.
  • Organic Feed: Organic feed is made from ingredients that have been grown without the use of synthetic fertilizers, pesticides, or genetically modified organisms (GMOs). It is a popular choice for those looking to raise chickens on an organic diet.

Homemade chicken feed recipes

If you prefer a more hands-on approach or want to customize your chickens' diet, you can create homemade chicken feed using a variety of ingredients. Here are a few homemade chicken feed recipes to consider:

Recipe 1: Basic Homemade Chicken Feed


- 4 parts corn

- 4 parts wheat

- 4 parts oats

- 1 part fish meal

- 1 part soybean meal

- 1 part crushed oyster shells

- 1 part poultry vitamins and minerals


1. Mix all the ingredients together thoroughly.

2. Store the feed in a cool, dry place in an airtight container.

3. Feed the homemade feed to your chickens daily, adjusting the quantity based on their age and size.

Recipe 2: Vegetarian Homemade Chicken Feed


- 5 parts corn

- 5 parts barley

- 5 parts oats

- 2 parts soybean meal

- 1 part flaxseed meal

- 1 part calcium carbonate

- 1 part poultry vitamins and minerals


1. Combine all the ingredients in a large container.

2. Mix thoroughly to ensure even distribution of nutrients.

3. Store the feed in a cool, dry place and use as needed.

Remember to monitor your chickens' health and egg production when using homemade feed. Adjust the ingredients or consult with a poultry nutritionist if needed.

Feeding schedule for chickens

Establishing a feeding schedule is crucial to ensure that your chickens receive the proper nutrition throughout the day.

A consistent and balanced feeding routine can help maintain their health and egg production.

Here's a general feeding schedule to follow:

Morning: Provide fresh water and offer a measured quantity of feed. Allow chickens access to the feed for a specific period, usually 30 minutes to an hour.

Afternoon: Check the water supply and refill if necessary. Consider offering treats such as vegetables or fruits to provide additional nutrients and mental stimulation for the chickens.

Evening: Check the water again and replenish if needed. Remove any leftover feed to prevent spoilage and attract pests.

Remember to adjust the feeding schedule based on the age, breed, and specific needs of your chickens. Regularly monitor their body condition, weight, and egg production to ensure they are receiving adequate nutrition.

Tips for ensuring optimal health and egg production

In addition to providing a balanced diet, there are several other factors to consider to ensure optimal health and egg production in your chickens.

Here are some tips to help you achieve the best results:

Access to Fresh Water: Chickens need access to clean, fresh water at all times. Ensure that waterers are regularly cleaned and refilled to prevent dehydration and maintain good hydration.

Free-Range or Outdoor Access: Allowing chickens to free-range or providing them with outdoor access can have numerous benefits. They can forage for insects, worms, and grass, which adds variety to their diet and increases the nutritional value of their eggs.

Provide Grit: Chickens need grit to help them grind and digest their food properly. Offer a separate container of coarse grit or provide access to a dirt or gravel area where they can naturally find grit.

Maintain a Clean Environment: A clean and well-maintained coop is essential for the health and well-being of your chickens. Regularly clean the coop, remove droppings, and provide clean bedding to prevent the buildup of bacteria and parasites.

Monitor for Signs of Illness: Regularly observe your chickens for any signs of illness, such as changes in behavior, appetite, or egg production. Early detection of health issues can prevent further complications and ensure prompt treatment.

Common feeding mistakes to avoid

While it's important to know what to feed your chickens, it's equally important to be aware of common feeding mistakes to avoid. These mistakes can have a negative impact on your chickens' health and egg production.

Here are some common pitfalls to watch out for:

Overfeeding or Underfeeding: Feeding too much or too little can lead to weight issues and health problems. Follow recommended feeding guidelines based on the age, breed, and activity level of your chickens.

Feeding Moldy or Spoiled Food: Moldy or spoiled food can contain harmful toxins that can make your chickens sick. Regularly check the feed for signs of spoilage, and discard any food that appears moldy or has an off smell.

Feeding Medication Without Veterinary Guidance: Administering medication or supplements without professional guidance can be dangerous. Consult with a veterinarian before giving any medications or supplements to your chickens.

Feeding Toxic Foods: Some foods are toxic to chickens and should be avoided. These include chocolate, avocado, onions, garlic, and caffeine. Familiarize yourself with the list of foods that are harmful to chickens and ensure they are kept out of reach.

Neglecting Calcium Supplementation: Calcium deficiency can lead to weak eggshells or even egg-binding. Ensure that your chickens have access to a calcium source, such as crushed oyster shells, to meet their calcium needs.

Supplements for chickens

While a well-balanced diet should provide most of the necessary nutrients, there may be situations where supplements can benefit your chickens.

Here are some common supplements for chickens and their potential benefits:

Probiotics: Probiotics can improve digestion and enhance the immune system. Look for probiotic supplements specifically formulated for chickens.

Electrolytes: Electrolyte supplements can help replenish essential minerals and support hydration during periods of stress or extreme weather conditions.

Vitamin Supplements: In certain cases, such as during molting or illness, vitamin supplements can provide a boost to your chickens' health. Consult with a veterinarian for appropriate vitamin supplementation.

Remember to use supplements as directed and consult with a poultry nutritionist or veterinarian if you have any concerns about your chickens' nutritional needs.

Conclusion and final thoughts

Feeding your chickens for optimal health and egg production requires careful consideration of their nutritional needs.

By understanding the different nutrients chickens require, choosing the right types of feed, and following a feeding schedule, you can ensure that your chickens thrive and produce high-quality eggs.

Avoid common feeding mistakes, provide access to fresh water and outdoor foraging opportunities, and maintain a clean environment to promote optimal health.

Consider incorporating homemade feed recipes or supplements when necessary, and monitor your chickens' overall well-being to make adjustments as needed.

With this essential guide, you are now equipped with the knowledge and tools to feed your chickens for optimal health and egg production. Whether you raise chickens for personal use or run a commercial operation, your well-informed approach to chicken nutrition will undoubtedly yield excellent results.

Happy feeding and happy chickens!

As a dedicated teacher, mother, and writer on sustainability from Sydney, Australia, my heart is set on sharing the message of environmental care.

I believe in the power of nurturing love and responsibility towards our planet, starting with our children.

My approach blends simplicity with depth, aiming to spark a genuine interest in young minds about the importance of being kind to the environment.

This isn't just about the planet; it's about showing love and care for our families and communities by creating a healthier world for them.

Through engaging and heartfelt teaching methods and writings, I aspire to guide children in understanding that taking care of the Earth is a way of nurturing and protecting those they love, shaping them into compassionate guardians of a sustainable future.

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